Checks for various ways that the const CharT* constructor of std::basic_string_view can be passed a null argument and replaces them with the default constructor in most cases. For the comparison operators, braced initializer list does not compile so instead a call to .empty() or the empty string literal are used, where appropriate.
This prevents code from invoking behavior which is unconditionally undefined. The single-argument const CharT* constructor does not check for the null case before dereferencing its input. The standard is slated to add an explicitly-deleted overload to catch some of these cases: wg21.link/p2166
https://reviews.llvm.org/D114823 is a companion change to prevent duplicate warnings from the bugprone-string-constructor check.