Previously, subprograms contained a metadata reference to the function they
described. Because most clients need to get or set a subprogram for a given
function rather than the other way around, this created unneeded inefficiency.
For example, many passes needed to call the function llvm::makeSubprogramMap()
to build a mapping from functions to subprograms, and the IR linker needed to
fix up function references in a way that caused quadratic complexity in the IR
linking phase of LTO.
This change reverses the direction of the edge by storing the subprogram as
function-level metadata and removing DISubprogram's function field.
Since this is an IR change, a bitcode upgrade has been provided.