Remove the Mangled::operator! and Mangled::operator void* where the comments in header and implementation files disagree and replace them with operator bool.
// Inside Symbol::SynthesizeNameIfNeeded (lldb) p m_mangled (lldb_private::Mangled) $0 = (m_mangled = None, m_demangled = "puts") (lldb) p !m_mangled (bool) $1 = true # should be false!!
This leads to Symbol::SynthesizeNameIfNeeded overwriting m_demangled part of Mangled (in this case "puts").
In conclusion, this patch turns
callq 0x401030 ; symbol stub for: ___lldb_unnamed_symbol36
callq 0x401030 ; symbol stub for: puts .