This patch implements --build-id. After the linker creates an output file
in the memory buffer, it computes the FNV1 hash of the resulting file
and set the hash to the .note section as a build-id.
GNU ld and gold have the same feature, but their default choice of the
hash function is different. Their default is SHA1.
We made a deliberate choice to not use a secure hash function for the
sake of performance. Computing a secure hash is slow -- for example,
MD5 throughput is usually 400 MB/s or so. SHA1 is slower than that.
As a result, if you pass --build-id to gold, then the linker becomes about
10% slower than that without the option. We observed a similar degradation
in an experimental implementation of build-id for LLD. On the other hand,
we observed only 1-2% performance degradation with the FNV hash.
Since build-id is not for digital certificate or anything, we think that
a very small probability of collision is acceptable.
We considered using other signals such as using input file timestamps as
inputs to a secure hash function. But such signals would have an issue
with build reproducibility (if you build a binary from the same source
tree using the same toolchain, the build id should become the same.)
GNU linkers accepts --build-id=<style> option where style is one of
"MD5", "SHA1", or an arbitrary hex string. That option is out of scope
of this patch.