[Support] Add a basic C API for llvm::Error.
The C-API supports consuming errors, converting an error to a string error
message, and querying an error's type. Other LLVM C APIs that wish to use
llvm::Error can supply error-type-id checkers and custom
error-to-structured-type converters for any custom errors they provide.
Reviewers: bogner, zturner, labath, dblaikie
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D50716