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[LoopIdiomRecognize] BCmp loop idiom recognition

Description

[LoopIdiomRecognize] BCmp loop idiom recognition

Summary:
@mclow.lists brought up this issue up in IRC.
It is a reasonably common problem to compare some two values for equality.
Those may be just some integers, strings or arrays of integers.

In C, there is memcmp(), bcmp() functions.
In C++, there exists std::equal() algorithm.
One can also write that function manually.

libstdc++'s std::equal() is specialized to directly call memcmp() for
various types, but not std::byte from C++2a. https://godbolt.org/z/mx2ejJ

libc++ does not do anything like that, it simply relies on simple C++'s
operator==(). https://godbolt.org/z/er0Zwf (GOOD!)

So likely, there exists a certain performance opportunities.
Let's compare performance of naive std::equal() (no memcmp()) with one that
is using memcmp() (in this case, compiled with modified compiler).

#include <algorithm>
#include <cmath>
#include <cstdint>
#include <iterator>
#include <limits>
#include <random>
#include <type_traits>
#include <utility>
#include <vector>

#include "benchmark/benchmark.h"

template <class T>
bool equal(T* a, T* a_end, T* b) noexcept {
  for (; a != a_end; ++a, ++b) {
    if (*a != *b) return false;
  }
  return true;
}

template <typename T>
std::vector<T> getVectorOfRandomNumbers(size_t count) {
  std::random_device rd;
  std::mt19937 gen(rd());
  std::uniform_int_distribution<T> dis(std::numeric_limits<T>::min(),
                                       std::numeric_limits<T>::max());
  std::vector<T> v;
  v.reserve(count);
  std::generate_n(std::back_inserter(v), count,
                  [&dis, &gen]() { return dis(gen); });
  assert(v.size() == count);
  return v;
}

struct Identical {
  template <typename T>
  static std::pair<std::vector<T>, std::vector<T>> Gen(size_t count) {
    auto Tmp = getVectorOfRandomNumbers<T>(count);
    return std::make_pair(Tmp, std::move(Tmp));
  }
};

struct InequalHalfway {
  template <typename T>
  static std::pair<std::vector<T>, std::vector<T>> Gen(size_t count) {
    auto V0 = getVectorOfRandomNumbers<T>(count);
    auto V1 = V0;
    V1[V1.size() / size_t(2)]++;  // just change the value.
    return std::make_pair(std::move(V0), std::move(V1));
  }
};

template <class T, class Gen>
void BM_bcmp(benchmark::State& state) {
  const size_t Length = state.range(0);

  const std::pair<std::vector<T>, std::vector<T>> Data =
      Gen::template Gen<T>(Length);
  const std::vector<T>& a = Data.first;
  const std::vector<T>& b = Data.second;
  assert(a.size() == Length && b.size() == a.size());

  benchmark::ClobberMemory();
  benchmark::DoNotOptimize(a);
  benchmark::DoNotOptimize(a.data());
  benchmark::DoNotOptimize(b);
  benchmark::DoNotOptimize(b.data());

  for (auto _ : state) {
    const bool is_equal = equal(a.data(), a.data() + a.size(), b.data());
    benchmark::DoNotOptimize(is_equal);
  }
  state.SetComplexityN(Length);
  state.counters["eltcnt"] =
      benchmark::Counter(Length, benchmark::Counter::kIsIterationInvariant);
  state.counters["eltcnt/sec"] =
      benchmark::Counter(Length, benchmark::Counter::kIsIterationInvariantRate);
  const size_t BytesRead = 2 * sizeof(T) * Length;
  state.counters["bytes_read/iteration"] =
      benchmark::Counter(BytesRead, benchmark::Counter::kDefaults,
                         benchmark::Counter::OneK::kIs1024);
  state.counters["bytes_read/sec"] = benchmark::Counter(
      BytesRead, benchmark::Counter::kIsIterationInvariantRate,
      benchmark::Counter::OneK::kIs1024);
}

template <typename T>
static void CustomArguments(benchmark::internal::Benchmark* b) {
  const size_t L2SizeBytes = []() {
    for (const benchmark::CPUInfo::CacheInfo& I :
         benchmark::CPUInfo::Get().caches) {
      if (I.level == 2) return I.size;
    }
    return 0;
  }();
  // What is the largest range we can check to always fit within given L2 cache?
  const size_t MaxLen = L2SizeBytes / /*total bufs*/ 2 /
                        /*maximal elt size*/ sizeof(T) / /*safety margin*/ 2;
  b->RangeMultiplier(2)->Range(1, MaxLen)->Complexity(benchmark::oN);
}

BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint8_t, Identical)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint8_t>);
BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint16_t, Identical)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint16_t>);
BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint32_t, Identical)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint32_t>);
BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint64_t, Identical)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint64_t>);

BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint8_t, InequalHalfway)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint8_t>);
BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint16_t, InequalHalfway)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint16_t>);
BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint32_t, InequalHalfway)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint32_t>);
BENCHMARK_TEMPLATE(BM_bcmp, uint64_t, InequalHalfway)
    ->Apply(CustomArguments<uint64_t>);

$ ~/src/googlebenchmark/tools/compare.py --no-utest benchmarks build-{old,new}/test/llvm-bcmp-bench
RUNNING: build-old/test/llvm-bcmp-bench --benchmark_out=/tmp/tmpb6PEUx
2019-04-25 21:17:11
Running build-old/test/llvm-bcmp-bench
Run on (8 X 4000 MHz CPU s)
CPU Caches:
  L1 Data 16K (x8)
  L1 Instruction 64K (x4)
  L2 Unified 2048K (x4)
  L3 Unified 8192K (x1)
Load Average: 0.65, 3.90, 4.14
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Benchmark                                         Time             CPU   Iterations UserCounters...
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, Identical>/512000           432131 ns       432101 ns         1613 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=2.20706G/s eltcnt=825.856M eltcnt/sec=1.18491G/s
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, Identical>_BigO               0.86 N          0.86 N
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, Identical>_RMS                   8 %             8 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, Identical>/256000          161408 ns       161409 ns         4027 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=5.90843G/s eltcnt=1030.91M eltcnt/sec=1.58603G/s
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, Identical>_BigO              0.67 N          0.67 N
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, Identical>_RMS                 25 %            25 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, Identical>/128000           81497 ns        81488 ns         8415 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=11.7032G/s eltcnt=1077.12M eltcnt/sec=1.57078G/s
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, Identical>_BigO              0.71 N          0.71 N
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, Identical>_RMS                 42 %            42 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, Identical>/64000            50138 ns        50138 ns        10909 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=19.0209G/s eltcnt=698.176M eltcnt/sec=1.27647G/s
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, Identical>_BigO              0.84 N          0.84 N
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, Identical>_RMS                 27 %            27 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, InequalHalfway>/512000      192405 ns       192392 ns         3638 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=4.95694G/s eltcnt=1.86266G eltcnt/sec=2.66124G/s
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO          0.38 N          0.38 N
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS              3 %             3 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, InequalHalfway>/256000     127858 ns       127860 ns         5477 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=7.45873G/s eltcnt=1.40211G eltcnt/sec=2.00219G/s
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO         0.50 N          0.50 N
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS             0 %             0 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, InequalHalfway>/128000      49140 ns        49140 ns        14281 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=19.4072G/s eltcnt=1.82797G eltcnt/sec=2.60478G/s
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO         0.40 N          0.40 N
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS            18 %            18 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, InequalHalfway>/64000       32101 ns        32099 ns        21786 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=29.7101G/s eltcnt=1.3943G eltcnt/sec=1.99381G/s
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO         0.50 N          0.50 N
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS             1 %             1 %
RUNNING: build-new/test/llvm-bcmp-bench --benchmark_out=/tmp/tmpQ46PP0
2019-04-25 21:19:29
Running build-new/test/llvm-bcmp-bench
Run on (8 X 4000 MHz CPU s)
CPU Caches:
  L1 Data 16K (x8)
  L1 Instruction 64K (x4)
  L2 Unified 2048K (x4)
  L3 Unified 8192K (x1)
Load Average: 1.01, 2.85, 3.71
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Benchmark                                         Time             CPU   Iterations UserCounters...
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, Identical>/512000            18593 ns        18590 ns        37565 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=51.2991G/s eltcnt=19.2333G eltcnt/sec=27.541G/s
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, Identical>_BigO               0.04 N          0.04 N
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, Identical>_RMS                  37 %            37 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, Identical>/256000           18950 ns        18948 ns        37223 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=50.3324G/s eltcnt=9.52909G eltcnt/sec=13.511G/s
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, Identical>_BigO              0.08 N          0.08 N
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, Identical>_RMS                 34 %            34 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, Identical>/128000           18627 ns        18627 ns        37895 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=51.198G/s eltcnt=4.85056G eltcnt/sec=6.87168G/s
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, Identical>_BigO              0.16 N          0.16 N
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, Identical>_RMS                 35 %            35 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, Identical>/64000            18855 ns        18855 ns        37458 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=50.5791G/s eltcnt=2.39731G eltcnt/sec=3.3943G/s
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, Identical>_BigO              0.32 N          0.32 N
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, Identical>_RMS                 33 %            33 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, InequalHalfway>/512000        9570 ns         9569 ns        73500 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=99.6601G/s eltcnt=37.632G eltcnt/sec=53.5046G/s
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO          0.02 N          0.02 N
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS             29 %            29 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, InequalHalfway>/256000       9547 ns         9547 ns        74343 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=99.8971G/s eltcnt=19.0318G eltcnt/sec=26.8159G/s
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO         0.04 N          0.04 N
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS            29 %            29 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, InequalHalfway>/128000       9396 ns         9394 ns        73521 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=101.518G/s eltcnt=9.41069G eltcnt/sec=13.6255G/s
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO         0.08 N          0.08 N
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS            30 %            30 %
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, InequalHalfway>/64000        9499 ns         9498 ns        73802 bytes_read/iteration=1000k bytes_read/sec=100.405G/s eltcnt=4.72333G eltcnt/sec=6.73808G/s
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, InequalHalfway>_BigO         0.16 N          0.16 N
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, InequalHalfway>_RMS            28 %            28 %
Comparing build-old/test/llvm-bcmp-bench to build-new/test/llvm-bcmp-bench
Benchmark                                                  Time             CPU      Time Old      Time New       CPU Old       CPU New
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, Identical>/512000                      -0.9570         -0.9570        432131         18593        432101         18590
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, Identical>/256000                     -0.8826         -0.8826        161408         18950        161409         18948
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, Identical>/128000                     -0.7714         -0.7714         81497         18627         81488         18627
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, Identical>/64000                      -0.6239         -0.6239         50138         18855         50138         18855
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint8_t, InequalHalfway>/512000                 -0.9503         -0.9503        192405          9570        192392          9569
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint16_t, InequalHalfway>/256000                -0.9253         -0.9253        127858          9547        127860          9547
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint32_t, InequalHalfway>/128000                -0.8088         -0.8088         49140          9396         49140          9394
<...>
BM_bcmp<uint64_t, InequalHalfway>/64000                 -0.7041         -0.7041         32101          9499         32099          9498

What can we tell from the benchmark?

  • Performance of naive equality check somewhat improves with element size, maxing out at eltcnt/sec=1.58603G/s for uint16_t, or bytes_read/sec=19.0209G/s for uint64_t. I think, that instability implies performance problems.
  • Performance of memcmp()-aware benchmark always maxes out at around bytes_read/sec=51.2991G/s for every type. That is 2.6x the throughput of the naive variant!
  • eltcnt/sec metric for the memcmp()-aware benchmark maxes out at eltcnt/sec=27.541G/s for uint8_t (was: eltcnt/sec=1.18491G/s, so 24x) and linearly decreases with element size. For uint64_t, it's ~4x+ the elements/second.
  • The call obvious is more pricey than the loop, with small element count. As it can be seen from the full output , the memcmp() is almost universally worse, independent of the element size (and thus buffer size) when element count is less than 8.

So all in all, bcmp idiom does indeed pose untapped performance headroom.
This diff does implement said idiom recognition. I think a reasonable test
coverage is present, but do tell if there is anything obvious missing.

Now, quality. This does succeed to build and pass the test-suite, at least
without any non-bundled elements.


This transform fires 91 times:

$ /build/test-suite/utils/compare.py -m loop-idiom.NumBCmp result-new.json
Tests: 1149
Metric: loop-idiom.NumBCmp

Program                                         result-new

MultiSourc...Benchmarks/7zip/7zip-benchmark    79.00
MultiSource/Applications/d/make_dparser         3.00
SingleSource/UnitTests/vla                      2.00
MultiSource/Applications/Burg/burg              1.00
MultiSourc.../Applications/JM/lencod/lencod     1.00
MultiSource/Applications/lemon/lemon            1.00
MultiSource/Benchmarks/Bullet/bullet            1.00
MultiSourc...e/Benchmarks/MallocBench/gs/gs     1.00
MultiSourc...gs-C/TimberWolfMC/timberwolfmc     1.00
MultiSourc...Prolangs-C/simulator/simulator     1.00

The size changes are:
I'm not sure what's going on with SingleSource/UnitTests/vla.test yet, did not look.

$ /build/test-suite/utils/compare.py -m size..text result-{old,new}.json --filter-hash
Tests: 1149
Same hash: 907 (filtered out)
Remaining: 242
Metric: size..text

Program                                        result-old result-new diff
test-suite...ingleSource/UnitTests/vla.test   753.00     833.00     10.6%
test-suite...marks/7zip/7zip-benchmark.test   1001697.00 966657.00  -3.5%
test-suite...ngs-C/simulator/simulator.test   32369.00   32321.00   -0.1%
test-suite...plications/d/make_dparser.test   89585.00   89505.00   -0.1%
test-suite...ce/Applications/Burg/burg.test   40817.00   40785.00   -0.1%
test-suite.../Applications/lemon/lemon.test   47281.00   47249.00   -0.1%
test-suite...TimberWolfMC/timberwolfmc.test   250065.00  250113.00   0.0%
test-suite...chmarks/MallocBench/gs/gs.test   149889.00  149873.00  -0.0%
test-suite...ications/JM/lencod/lencod.test   769585.00  769569.00  -0.0%
test-suite.../Benchmarks/Bullet/bullet.test   770049.00  770049.00   0.0%
test-suite...HMARK_ANISTROPIC_DIFFUSION/128    NaN        NaN        nan%
test-suite...HMARK_ANISTROPIC_DIFFUSION/256    NaN        NaN        nan%
test-suite...CHMARK_ANISTROPIC_DIFFUSION/64    NaN        NaN        nan%
test-suite...CHMARK_ANISTROPIC_DIFFUSION/32    NaN        NaN        nan%
test-suite...ENCHMARK_BILATERAL_FILTER/64/4    NaN        NaN        nan%
Geomean difference                                                   nan%
         result-old    result-new       diff
count  1.000000e+01  10.00000      10.000000
mean   3.152090e+05  311695.40000  0.006749
std    3.790398e+05  372091.42232  0.036605
min    7.530000e+02  833.00000    -0.034981
25%    4.243300e+04  42401.00000  -0.000866
50%    1.197370e+05  119689.00000 -0.000392
75%    6.397050e+05  639705.00000 -0.000005
max    1.001697e+06  966657.00000  0.106242

I don't have timings though.

And now to the code. The basic idea is to completely replace the whole loop.
If we can't fully kill it, don't transform.
I have left one or two comments in the code, so hopefully it can be understood.

Also, there is a few TODO's that i have left for follow-ups:

  • widening of memcmp()/bcmp()
  • step smaller than the comparison size
  • Metadata propagation
  • more than two blocks as long as there is still a single backedge?
  • ???

Reviewers: reames, fhahn, mkazantsev, chandlerc, craig.topper, courbet

Reviewed By: courbet

Subscribers: hiraditya, xbolva00, nikic, jfb, gchatelet, courbet, llvm-commits, mclow.lists

Tags: #llvm

Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D61144

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