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[analyzer] Introduce a simplified API for adding custom path notes.

Description

[analyzer] Introduce a simplified API for adding custom path notes.

Almost all path-sensitive checkers need to tell the user when something specific
to that checker happens along the execution path but does not constitute a bug
on its own. For instance, a call to operator delete in C++ has consequences
that are specific to a use-after-free bug. Deleting an object is not a bug
on its own, but when the Analyzer finds an execution path on which a deleted
object is used, it'll have to explain to the user when exactly during that path
did the deallocation take place.

Historically such custom notes were added by implementing "bug report visitors".
These visitors were post-processing bug reports by visiting every ExplodedNode
along the path and emitting path notes whenever they noticed that a change that
is relevant to a bug report occurs within the program state. For example,
it emits a "memory is deallocated" note when it notices that a pointer changes
its state from "allocated" to "deleted".

The "visitor" approach is powerful and efficient but hard to use because
such preprocessing implies that the developer first models the effects
of the event (say, changes the pointer's state from "allocated" to "deleted"
as part of operator delete()'s transfer function) and then forgets what happened
and later tries to reverse-engineer itself and figure out what did it do
by looking at the report.

The proposed approach tries to avoid discarding the information that was
available when the transfer function was evaluated. Instead, it allows the
developer to capture all the necessary information into a closure that
will be automatically invoked later in order to produce the actual note.

This should reduce boilerplate and avoid very painful logic duplication.

On the technical side, the closure is a lambda that's put into a special kind of
a program point tag, and a special bug report visitor visits all nodes in the
report and invokes all note-producing closures it finds along the path.

For now it is up to the lambda to make sure that the note is actually relevant
to the report. For instance, a memory deallocation note would be irrelevant when
we're reporting a division by zero bug or if we're reporting a use-after-free
of a different, unrelated chunk of memory. The lambda can figure these thing out
by looking at the bug report object that's passed into it.

A single checker is refactored to make use of the new functionality: MIGChecker.
Its program state is trivial, making it an easy testing ground for the first
version of the API.

Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D58367