[MCA] Highlight kernel bottlenecks in the summary view.
This patch adds a new flag named -bottleneck-analysis to print out information
about throughput bottlenecks.
MCA knows how to identify and classify dynamic dispatch stalls. However, it
doesn't know how to analyze and highlight kernel bottlenecks. The goal of this
patch is to teach MCA how to correlate increases in backend pressure to backend
stalls (and therefore, the loss of throughput).
From a Scheduler point of view, backend pressure is a function of the scheduler
buffer usage (i.e. how the number of uOps in the scheduler buffers changes over
time). Backend pressure increases (or decreases) when there is a mismatch
between the number of opcodes dispatched, and the number of opcodes issued in
the same cycle. Since buffer resources are limited, continuous increases in
backend pressure would eventually leads to dispatch stalls. So, there is a
strong correlation between dispatch stalls, and how backpressure changed over
This patch teaches how to identify situations where backend pressure increases
- unavailable pipeline resources.
- data dependencies.
Data dependencies may delay execution of instructions and therefore increase the
time that uOps have to spend in the scheduler buffers. That often translates to
an increase in backend pressure which may eventually lead to a bottleneck.
Contention on pipeline resources may also delay execution of instructions, and
lead to a temporary increase in backend pressure.
Internally, the Scheduler classifies instructions based on whether register /
memory operands are available or not.
An instruction is marked as "ready to execute" only if data dependencies are
Every cycle, the Scheduler attempts to execute all instructions that are ready
to execute. If an instruction cannot execute because of unavailable pipeline
resources, then the Scheduler internally updates a BusyResourceUnits mask with
the ID of each unavailable resource.
ExecuteStage is responsible for tracking changes in backend pressure. If backend
pressure increases during a cycle because of contention on pipeline resources,
then ExecuteStage sends a "backend pressure" event to the listeners.
That event would contain information about instructions delayed by resource
pressure, as well as the BusyResourceUnits mask.
Note that ExecuteStage also knows how to identify situations where backpressure
increased because of delays introduced by data dependencies.
The SummaryView observes "backend pressure" events and prints out a "bottleneck
Example of bottleneck report:
Cycles with backend pressure increase [ 99.89% ] Throughput Bottlenecks: Resource Pressure [ 0.00% ] Data Dependencies: [ 99.89% ] - Register Dependencies [ 0.00% ] - Memory Dependencies [ 99.89% ]
A bottleneck report is printed out only if increases in backend pressure
eventually caused backend stalls.
About the time complexity:
Time complexity is linear in the number of instructions in the
The average slowdown tends to be in the range of ~5-6%.
For memory intensive kernels, the slowdown can be significant if flag
-noalias=false is specified. In the worst case scenario I have observed a
slowdown of ~30% when flag -noalias=false was specified.
We can definitely recover part of that slowdown if we optimize class LSUnit (by
doing extra bookkeeping to speedup queries). For now, this new analysis is
disabled by default, and it can be enabled via flag -bottleneck-analysis. Users
of MCA as a library can enable the generation of pressure events through the
constructor of ExecuteStage.
This patch partially addresses https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=37494
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D58728