Give guidance on report_fatal_error in CodingStandards.rst and…

Description

Give guidance on report_fatal_error in CodingStandards.rst and ProgrammersManual.rst

The current ProgrammersManual.rst document has a lot of well-written
documentation on error handling thanks to @lhames. It suggests errors can be
split cleanly into "programmatic" and "recoverable" errors. However, the
reality in current LLVM seems to be there are a number of cases where a
non-programmatic error is not easily recoverable. Therefore, add a note to
indicate the existence of report_fatal_error for these cases. I've also added
a reminder to CodingStandards.rst in the section on assertions, to indicate
that llvm_unreachable and assertions should not be relied upon to report
errors triggered by user input.

The ProgrammersManual is also silent on the use of LLVMContext::diagnose,
which is used in BPF+WebAssembly+AMDGPU to report some errors during
instruction selection. I don't address that in this patch, as it's not quite
clear how to fit in to the current error handling story

Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D36826