[mlir][spirv] Support querying type extension/capability requirements
Previously we only consider the version/capability/extension requirements
on ops themselves. Some types in SPIR-V also require special extensions
or capabilities to be used. For example, non-32-bit integers/floats
will require different capabilities and/or extensions depending on
where they are used because it may mean special hardware abilities.
This commit adds query methods to SPIR-V type class hierarchy to support
querying extensions and capabilities. We don't go through ODS for
auto-generating such information given that we don't have them in
SPIR-V machine readable grammar and there are just a few types.
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D75875