[mlir] expose standard attributes to C API
Provide C API for MLIR standard attributes. Since standard attributes live
under lib/IR in core MLIR, place the C APIs in the IR library as well (standard
ops will go in a separate library).
Affine map and integer set attributes are only exposed as placeholder types
with IsA support due to the lack of C APIs for the corresponding types.
Integer and floating point attribute APIs expecting APInt and APFloat are not
exposed pending decision on how to support APInt and APFloat.
Reviewed By: stellaraccident
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D86143