Promote transpose from linalg to standard dialect
While affine maps are part of the builtin memref type, there is very
limited support for manipulating them in the standard dialect. Add
transpose to the set of ops to complement the existing view/subview ops.
This is a metadata transformation that encodes the transpose into the
strides of a memref.
I'm planning to use this when lowering operations on strided memrefs,
using the transpose to remove the stride without adding a dependency on
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D88651