[JITLink] Enable exception handling for ELF.
Adds the EHFrameSplitter and EHFrameEdgeFixer passes to the default JITLink
pass pipeline for ELF/x86-64, and teaches EHFrameEdgeFixer to handle some
new pointer encodings.
Together these changes enable exception handling (at least for the basic
cases that I've tested so far) for ELF/x86-64 objects loaded via JITLink.