Add new 'preferred_name' attribute.
This attribute permits a typedef to be associated with a class template
specialization as a preferred way of naming that class template
specialization. This permits us to specify that (for example) the
preferred way to express 'std::basic_string<char>' is as 'std::string'.
The attribute is applied to the various class templates in libc++ that have
corresponding well-known typedef names.
This is a re-commit. The previous commit was reverted because it exposed
a pre-existing bug that has since been fixed / worked around; see
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D91311