[NFC][clang] Refactor getCompilationPhases()+Types.def step 1.
Moves list of phases into Types.def table: Currently Types.def contains a
table of strings that are used to assemble a list of compilation phases to be
setup in the clang driver's jobs pipeline. This change makes it so that the table
itself contains the list of phases. A subsequent patch will remove the strings.
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D64098