[compiler-rt][XRay] Address follow-up comments to initial interface and initialisation code
This addresses some comments from D21612, which contains the following changes:
- Update xray_patch() and xray_unpatch() API documentation to not imply asynchrony.
- Introduce a scope cleanup mechanism to make sure we can roll-back changes to the XRayPatching global atomic.
- Introduce a few more comments for potential extension points for other platforms (for the implementation details of patching and un-patching).
Reviewers: eugenis, rnk, kcc, echristo, majnemer
Subscribers: llvm-commits, mehdi_amini
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D22911