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Make iteration over the DeclContext::lookup_result safe.

Authored by v.g.vassilev on Mar 17 2021, 1:56 AM.

Description

Make iteration over the DeclContext::lookup_result safe.

The idiom:

DeclContext::lookup_result R = DeclContext::lookup(Name);
for (auto *D : R) {...}

is not safe when in the loop body we trigger deserialization from an AST file.
The deserialization can insert new declarations in the StoredDeclsList whose
underlying type is a vector. When the vector decides to reallocate its storage
the pointer we hold becomes invalid.

This patch replaces a SmallVector with an singly-linked list. The current
approach stores a SmallVector<NamedDecl*, 4> which is around 8 pointers.
The linked list is 3, 5, or 7. We do better in terms of memory usage for small
cases (and worse in terms of locality -- the linked list entries won't be near
each other, but will be near their corresponding declarations, and we were going
to fetch those memory pages anyway). For larger cases: the vector uses a
doubling strategy for reallocation, so will generally be between half-full and
full. Let's say it's 75% full on average, so there's N * 4/3 + 4 pointers' worth
of space allocated currently and will be 2N pointers with the linked list. So we
break even when there are N=6 entries and slightly lose in terms of memory usage
after that. We suspect that's still a win on average.

Thanks to @rsmith!

Differential revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D91524