[scudo][standalone] Introduce the SizeClassMap
As with the sanitizer_common allocator, the SCM allows for efficient
mapping between sizes and size-classes, table-free.
It doesn't depart significantly from the original, except that we
allow the use of size-class 0 for other purposes (as opposed to
chunks of size 0). The Primary will use it to hold TransferBatches.
Reviewers: vitalybuka, eugenis, hctim, morehouse
Reviewed By: vitalybuka
Subscribers: srhines, mgorny, delcypher, #sanitizers, llvm-commits
Tags: #llvm, #sanitizers
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D61088