Rewrite std::filesystem::path iterators and parser
This patch entirely rewrites the parsing logic for paths. Unlike the previous
implementation this one stores information about the current state; For example
if we are in a trailing separator or a root separator. This avoids the need for
extra lookahead (and extra work) when incrementing or decrementing an iterator.
Roughly this gives us a 15% speedup over the previous implementation.
Unfortunately this implementation is still a lot slower than libstdc++'s.
Because libstdc++ pre-parses and splits the path upon construction their
iterators are trivial to increment/decrement. This makes libc++ lazy parsing
100x slower than libstdc++. However the pre-parsing libstdc++ causes a ton
of extra and unneeded allocations when constructing the string. For example
path("/foo/bar/") would require at least 5 allocations with libstdc++
whereas libc++ uses only one. The non-allocating behavior is much preferable
when you consider filesystem usages like 'exists("/foo/bar/")'.
Even then libc++'s path seems to be twice as slow to simply construct compared
to libstdc++. More investigation is needed about this.