[clang-tidy] Reworked enum options handling(again)
Reland b9306fd after fixing the issue causing mac builds to fail unittests.
Following on from D77085, I was never happy with the passing a mapping to the option get/store functions. This patch addresses this by using explicit specializations to handle the serializing and deserializing of enum options.
Reviewed By: aaron.ballman
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D82188