[ConstantRange] Add API for intrinsics (NFC)
This adds a common API for compute constant ranges of intrinsics.
The intention here is that
a) we can reuse the same code across different passes that handle
constant ranges, i.e. this can be reused in SCCP
b) we only have to add knowledge about supported intrinsics to
ConstantRange, not any consumers.
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D84587