[MemorySSA] Fix exponential compile-time updating MemorySSA.
MemorySSAUpdater::getPreviousDefRecursive is a recursive algorithm, for
each block, it computes the previous definition for each predecessor,
then takes those definitions and combines them. But currently it doesn't
remember results which it already computed; this means it can visit the
same block multiple times, which adds up to exponential time overall.
To fix this, this patch adds a cache. If we computed the result for a
block already, we don't need to visit it again because we'll come up
with the same result. Well, unless we RAUW a MemoryPHI; in that case,
the TrackingVH will be updated automatically.
This matches the original source paper for this algorithm.
The testcase isn't really a test for the bug, but it adds coverage for
the case where tryRemoveTrivialPhi erases an existing PHI node. (It's
hard to write a good regression test for a performance issue.)
Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D44715